Cognitive development as pertaining to perception, memory, judgement and reasoning in children with Down syndrome is quite variable. Ideally, the identification of the best methods of teaching each particular child begins soon after birth through early intervention programmes. Since children with Down syndrome have a wide range of abilities, success at school can vary greatly. The cognitive problems that are found among Down syndrome children can also be found among typical children. Therefore, parents can use general programmes that are offered through schools.
Language skills show a difference between understanding speech and expressing speech. Commonly, children with Down syndrome have a speech delay and require speech therapy to improve expressive language. Fine motor skills are also delayed and often lag behind gross motor skills and can interfere with cognitive development.